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D o you want to make candle by hand in traditional method?

N ow, You get it. All the informations are here.

Waxes
Wicking
Scents & Colours
Additives
Moulds
Set up & Clean up
Making the candles
Candle burning tips
Troubleshooting
Projects

candle making waxes

Paraffin wax comes in different melting points. The type of candle you are making will determine which melting point to buy.

Paraffin is a petroleum by-product. It contains oil. The lower the melting temperature of the paraffin, the more oil content in the wax. You want low melt point wax for container candles, and higher melt point wax for moulded free-standing candles. Use the highest melt point wax for taper candles

 

Container Wax 54 degrees C (125-138 degrees Fahrenheit) or lower. Use when you want your poured candle to stay in its container, i.e.. glass, tin, pot etc. This wax burns the longest in the container type candles because of its higher oil content. It melts first, then burns off.

Mould Wax 59-62 degrees C (139-143 Fah). It has less oil in it. The free-standing candle doesn't drip as it would if the wax melted at a lower temperature. Less oil in the wax also means it is firmer and retains its moulded shape well.

Dipping Wax 62 degrees C (145 Fah). This is the wax you use for making taper candles. It adheres to itself, so each dip will build upon the last to form the tapered candle. This wax can also be used as an overdip for pillar candles, to help them be drip free- or to seal pressed flowers that have been glued to the pillar candle.

Microcrystaline wax:  Unlike paraffin waxes, microcrystalline waxes contain a large percentage of         branched and cyclic molecules. This decreases the crystallinity of the microcrystalline waxes, making them softer and more pliable. They range in color from white to brown, and in consistency from soft and sticky to hard and dry. Microcrystaline waxes come in at lest 8 forms (that I know of, there may be more). They range in melt points from 165 degrees to 240 degrees and are used for several reasons.

The sticky wax or wax glue you hear about is a micro wax.
Micro 180 seems to be the most often used one and is generally the one that is ment when people refer to micro wax. It is a hardner and usually extend the burn time of the candles they are used in.

Some are softeners used to make wax more workable for hand molding and some help with layer adhesion for hand dipping and over dipping.

beeswax

Natural beeswax is golden in colour, stickier and has that lovely aroma. It comes in blocks, beads or honeycomb sheets. Melt 3 parts paraffin wax and 1 part block beeswax for great container candles. I have also used this mixture for moulded candles with good success, although they don't come out of the mould as easily as straight paraffin wax candles. Experiment with your ratio of beeswax to paraffin. For candles where you tear away the mould (such as juice cans, milk cartons) you can use a high concentration of beeswax, and not worry about it releasing from the mould. Use beeswax sheets (no melting required) to roll up into candles. Beeswax has a melt point of 62 C or 146 F. This high melt point can make a pure beeswax container candle burn improperly. The candle may burn a hole straight down the wick, leaving the majority of the wax unmelted around the sides of the container. Try using a blend of low melt point (54 C or 125 F) paraffin mixed with your beeswax instead if you have this problem. Beeswax also comes in beads. Pour the unmelted beads around a pre stiffened wick centred in a container. Tamp the beads down, then the candle is ready for burning.

Check your area for apiaries. The bee keepers often sell natural beeswax, or even coloured and scented block and sheet beeswax. Ask if they filter it (to remove honeycomb and other material).
I recommend checking country fairs and markets, the yellow pages or your area university's agricultural extension service for local apiaries you can call and enquire about beeswax. This will save you mailing expense for the heavy wax. You can also buy unfiltered beeswax, melt it and pour it through nylon stockings stretched over another container to filter it yourself. One supplier offered unfiltered beeswax for half the price of the filtered wax.

Candle making wick

Wicks come in different types and sizes. You will usually find small, medium and large (diameter measure) for each of the following types. Use one size higher for each 5 cm (2 inches) of candle diameter for long burning, drip reduced, non smoking candles. The relationship of the wick to the wax type and container or mould size/type is important for getting a long burning candle. Use a fatter wick for larger candles or for candles made from long burning wax, like beeswax or paraffin with hardening additives in it. When using flat braid wick, place the wick in your candles with the nap or grain of the braid down ('v' up-open at the top). If you wick a candle with the grain of the braid going from bottom to top (the wrong way) when the candle burns it will develop a carbonized ball on it, and that will smoke and burn unevenly. Don't worry about wick direction with paper core or metal core wicking.

Here's a tip from Staci: To hold a wick straight and centred. Take a tongue depressor and slice it length wise about 1/2 way down and just slide the wick into it and rest it on top of the container.You just pull the wick nice and tight!

For container candles, glue the wick tab to the center inside bottom before pouring your wax. This will keep it where you want it.

It is important that you match the type of wick to the type of candle you are making:

 

Flat Braid - Looks like it sounds. It has a decorative appearance, and can be used for most candles but it tends to flop over and drown itself in your candle during burning. This kind of wick is mostly used for taper candles. The following is from The Candlemaker's Companion by Betty Oppenheimer, page 15 cf."Flat-braided wick is referred to by the number of plies in the wick, so the larger the number, the larger the wick. Common sizes are 15 ply (extra small), 18 ply (small), 24 and 30 ply (medium), 42 ply (large), and 60 ply (extra large)."

Square Braid - Has a more sturdy structure. Use in moulded candles, container candles and dipped candles. The following is from The Candlemaker's Companion by Betty Oppenheimer, page 15 cf."Square braid ¡­ come in various sizes with various numbering systems. A major wholesale suppplier of wick in this country uses a numbering system ranging from 6/0 (extra small) to 1/0, then beginning with #1 through #10, which is the largest. The wicks with /0 after the number are regular braid, and the ones with the # symbol in front of the number are loosely woven, so they are fluffier and larger in diameter without acutually being heavier."

Metal Core - Zinc or Lead. Use for small container candles and votives or tea lights, tiny terra cotta pots.

Paper Core - Use for small container candles too. They may smoke more than a metal core wick.

Candle making colours

I use small candle making dye chips. They come in a packet of 8 chips. Each chip colours about 1/2 kilo ( 1 pound of wax.) Use more chips for deeper colours. I think I have seen about 30 shades for sale, and then you can get endless variety by mixing them for custom colour making! Dye also comes in liquid form, powder form and larger cake form and flake form. Chips are premeasured and make it easier for you to match your colour batches.

candle making scents

Liquid candle making scents are available in 15 ml (1/2 oz) and larger bottles. One supplier recommends 15 ml for 1/2 kilo of wax (1/2 oz for 1 pound). Scent strength does vary according to the formulation - check with your supplier to find out what quantity to use with wax.

I have had some problems using essential oils not specifically made for candles. They did not mix well with the melted wax, leaving pitting and bubbles and mottling on the candle's finish and an oily residue on the candle surface.  If in doubt, check with your supplier to make sure that their formulation will mix with wax.  It depends on the type of carrier oil used in the scent. There must be no water or alcohol in the scent.

I have used ground cinnamon, added to the melted wax just before pouring. You have to stir very well, and it still tends to settle in the bottom of your mould, but that effect is nice in a rustic style candle. Try other aromatic spices! 

I have also added crushed and whole lavender flowers. They settle too, in a mould or container but the effect was attractive. And they add a wonderful aroma to a candle.

Making A Strongly Scented Candle

Sometimes people have trouble with the scent 'throw' of their candles when they use too much vybar as a wax additive. It binds up the scent oil molecules Also, if you are buying a paraffin blend, it may already have vybar added to it. Blends are mostly called 'one pour' wax.

Add your scent to the melted paraffin just before pouring, so it won't evaporate with a lot of cooking.

For container candles :

Use 125-130 degree fahrenheit melt point paraffin (low melt point)
1/4 tsp vybar per 1 1b of wax, melted with the paraffin
a fat enough wick for your container
and your scent (added just before pouring the melted wax)

The vybar allows you to use more liquid scent than you are using presently. It binds up the molecules of scent oil so they don't 'bleed' out of your finished candles in oily droplets or residue at the bottom of the candle.
Be aware that too much vybar will cause problems, it binds up the scent oil molecules: more isn't better in this case.

For free-standing candles , use the same formula except use 138 degree melt point wax.

The maximum amount of scent you can use depends on the scent formula. Some mfg make their scents stronger than others. Try adding more and more scent until you get a candle that comes out wrong: The problem you will see is mottling, oily residue on the surfaces of the candles, and sometimes sputtering wicks. This will tell you how much of that manufacturers scent the paraffin will hold. If its still not very fragrant, try another mfg scent.

Also, don't use too much vybar... it helps the paraffin to hold more oil, and colour but it also locks up scent if used liberally. 1/4 tsp per 1 lb of wax should be enough for smooth good burning candles.


candle making wax additives

Use to harden (extend burning time) or change the opacity and colour qualities of your candles.

 

Stearic Acid (stearine) In two forms - an animal fat by-product, or a vegetable based fat, most commonly made from the palm.  I do not know the difference in the results you will get (if any) using either form. Add 3 Tablespoons to each 1/2 kilo of wax you are melting (3 Tablespoons to each pound). Stir in until melted, and pour your wax when ready. You colours will appear pastel and the candles will be slower burning because the melt point of the wax has been raised. This may not be desirable in a container candle . Container candles require a lower melting point wax to burn off all the wax, and not leave wax around the sides of the container. Hence, I have found that it is better not to use hardening additives when making container candles.

Lustre crystals . A wax polymer. They make your candle burn twice as long as plain paraffin wax candles. The candles will turn out more opaque, and your colours will appear brighter. The crystals have to be melted separately from the wax, and take a very high temperature to melt. When they are melted, add them to your melted wax and blend well. Again, I have found this additive not suitable for container candles.

Clear crystals . Also a wax polymer. These have the same effects as lustre crystals, but they won't change the opacity of the wax. Melt clear crystals separately and add to high melt point wax to form an overdip formula that is nice and hard, and almost clear.

Vybar forces the paraffin to form smaller crystals and provides an interlacing network to the paraffin's crystalline matrix. There are three positive results: 1) the oil holding capacity of the paraffin is increased, 2) the oil and dye molecules are anchored in place, 3) the denser crystalline structure is much stronger and resistant to flaws which appear as star bursts or mottling. A plus is that the Vybar will also bind up any unwanted water molecules which may be causing problems. 1% Vybar is a starting point for experimentation assuming you are using scent in your paraffin. This will add whiteness to your wax which may or may not be desirable. It will add a creamy surface and consistency to the finished candle. Vybar will not raise the melt point of the wax so they should burn about the same as before. Too much vybar can inhibit scent. So if you are having problems getting a strongly scented candle, try cutting back on the vybar. There are two different vybars. 103 for moulded candles. 260 for container candles. I have no way of getting this information. You'd be surprised how many people ask me! The formula is proprietary information owned by Baker Peterolite Company. (as far as I know) Businesses can order wholesale from them, by calling 1800 - 331-5516 for more information. 

Mineral Oil : To get the mottling effect. 3 Tablespoons per 2 kilos (1 lb) of paraffin wax. Pour the wax at 70 degrees C (160 F) and don't use a water bath to cool the candles.

Mottling additive in flake form . Add 1 to 4% of this product for large crystalline effect on candles. At last check, Chris at 610-896-5022 has information and samples. I have never tried this additive, and do not know what it is made from, but someone once said it works to stop smoking candles, caused by the use of lots of mineral oil and scent oils when trying to achieve the mottled effect.

Microcrystaline waxes come in at lest 8 forms (that I know of, there may be more). They range in melt points from 165 degrees to 240 degrees and are used for several reasons. Primarily as an additive to standard paraffin to increase or decrease melt point.
The sticky wax or wax glue you hear about is a micro wax.
Micro 180 seems to be the most often used one and is generally the one that is meant when people refer to micro wax. It is a hardener and usually extend the burn time of the candles they are used in. Some are used to make wax more workable for hand moulding and some help with layer adhesion for hand dipping and over dipping.

candle making moulds

 

Moulds come in an endless variety of shapes and sizes. Here are four basic types and some home made ideas.

Metal - One piece and easy to use. They have a hole in the base. The wick comes through here. You secure it with a screw (usually comes with the mould) and seal it from the outside with rubber putty so it doesn't leak wax when you fill the mould. Tie the other end of the wick to a rod or pencil and make taut. Rest the rod over the fill-end (top) of the mould. Now the wick is straight, centred and taut. Finished candles have one seam to shave off with a knife, then polish with a nylon stocking. There are also seamless metal moulds available, and multi-wick metal moulds as well.

Two piece plastic moulds. The novelty figurine candles are usually made with this kind of mould. These are more work than the metal moulds because when your candle comes out of the mould there will be a seam running around it that needs to be hand smoothed off. Some pigments stain the plastic, and use of high concentrations of scent oils will damage the plastic making them unusable.

Soft rubber moulds. These are one piece, and easier to use than the two piece rigid plastic moulds. They come in many shapes like the plastic moulds (fruit, figurines, etc.). Cooling wax inside the mould can harden and distort the shape of these sometimes. Most manufacturers recommend that you not use beeswax for rubber moulds because it damages the moulds.

Hard rubber moulds. These are not as long lasting as the other kinds of moulds and can be more expensive. Results are good and they are very easy to use.

Acrylic and plexiglass moulds. I have never used this type, but books have indicated that they are easy to use, and produce excellent quality candles. The bonus here would be that you can see your candle through them ....good for making candles with pressed flowers or herbs. I have had good success with just sticking the herbs or flowers on the candle after it comes out of my metal or home made mould.

Other moulds and containers.  

Wax coated frozen juice cans. Punch a hole for the wick through the metal bottom of the container. Tear the cans away from the hard, finished candles. You can make multiwick candles using these.

Milk cartons . They make nice candles of varying heights. I like a grouping of these large square candles, from 2 cm high to about 150 cm. The cartons just tear away when the candles are hard. You can easily make multi-wick candles using the milk cartons too. I love the patina finish on the candles you get when you use wax lined containers like milk cartons or frozen juice cans. These also make great multi-wick candles.

Canning Jars and baby food jars. Warm the jar before you pour the candle, it will reduce the incidence of bubbles forming, and help the paraffin to adhere to the sides of the jar. Glue the wick (with a wick tab) to the bottom of the jar, then pour your candle. The finished candle looks nice with the lid on and a ribbon around it for a gift. Glue whole spices to the lid for more decoration.

Small paper cups. These work well for the beeswax/paraffin blend. When the candles are hard, just tear away the cups!

Yoghurt containers, plastic margarine containers, wax or foil lined cartons such as hot chocolate mix, frozen juice cans . These recycled materials can make many different sizes of pillar candles and multi-wick candles that will look great in a grouping.

Make your own rubber moulds. Use a two-part compound called RTV silicone rubber. You shape the rubber around a favourite item to have a long-lasting candle mould of that exact shape with no seams.

Terra cotta pots of all shapes and sizes are charming filled with a candle. You seal up the hole in the bottom by lining the inside with a little aluminium foil, and the outside with sealing putty. You can paint the outside of the pot with craft spray paints, or use stencils. Other crafters have found it helpful to seal the pot with non-flammable varnish so the wax and colour doesn't seep into the terra cotta.

Galvanized buckets come in nice small shapes, just perfect for candle making as well. Try making citronella candles left in the buckets for outdoor use. Citronella candle scent is available from candle making or craft supply stores.

I recently tried making some 'industrial' or very rustic looking candles using corrugated cardboard. I made a mould from a sheet of cardboard in a cylindrical shape open at both ends for a pillar candle. I set the mould on a paper plate lined with foil. I sealed the base by pressing mould sealant putty all around the outside. Then I sprayed the inside of the mould and the foil on the bottom of the mould with silicone so I could peal off the card board after the candle hardened. I had some leakage when I poured the candle, but after a few minutes it stopped as the leaks hardened and formed a better seal. The candle came out nice and textured from the ribs of the corrugated cardboard after I tore it away. Some of the cardboard stuck to the candle, which enhanced the rustic look. I used 1 part beeswax and 3 parts paraffin with ivory colouring.

Candle Making set up and clean up

Use old bed sheets, wax paper or towels to cover your work surface. I just roll them up when I'm done and put them away in a box with the other candle making materials to reuse.

Put a couple of inches of water in an old sauce pan. Then put your wax in a metal container, preferably a pitcher for ease of handling. This container goes in the sauce pan on the burner, and this is how you melt your wax. The pitcher is easiest because it has a spout and a handle, and you can pour the melted wax better. You can also use a large juice can and just pinch the rim into a spout shape. A juice can would be hard to hold while pouring because of the heat of the wax. I don't wash my pitcher. I just melt all of the wax out of it when I'm finished and wipe the wax and colour residue out with a paper towel while it is still warm. Others have used crock pots, deep fat fryers and coffee urns fitted with brass spigots to melt paraffin.... with good success.

Clean Up

Don't pour wax down the drain. It will clog. Use a can to pour out waste wax, then throw the can away or re-melt the wax for later use. Or pour your wax into old muffin trays or ice-cube trays. These pieces of wax will be easy to store in a plastic bag, label them with the wax formula and scent. You will have premeasured pieces of wax hat will melt quickly because they are small.

Any spilt wax on a hard surface will just scrape off after it has cooled. If wax gets on clothing or cloth, you can pour hot water through it and the wax will mostly melt away with the pouring water. If wax gets in your carpet by some chance, let it harden and rub an ice cube on it to make it brittle, then scrape it out with a dull knife. Some wax will remain, and if its a noticeable colour, you can then melt it with a hot, wet cloth and sponge it up mostly with repeated treatments.

A correspondent suggested the warm iron treatment for stains on carpet or fabric. They had a red wax candle drip onto white carpet, and they found that "using a warm iron through paper towel got the colour out the best and cleanest".

I don't wash any of my tools, I just clean my moulds. It is important to have a wax and dust free mould for good candles. The candles will come out of the moulds easily, and they won't have marks or blemishes on them. Your moulds will not rust or deteriorate if you take good care of them. There is a cleaning solution for metal moulds that will remove wax. It is available at candle making supply shops. It is called 'mould cleaner' by most retailers. It is a liquid that you pour into a dirty mould and swirl it around, then dump out. This is for stubborn stains and wax build up. For regular normal metal mould cleaning, just put the mould upside down on a foil lined cookie sheet in a 70 degree C (150 F) oven. Not hotter. The welds in the mould will melt. Heat the mould for 15 minutes this way, and the wax will simply run out onto the foil. Be sure not to scrape or scratch the inside of your mould. It will mar every candle you make in it from that point on. Also, be careful not to dent a mould. The candles will be very difficult to remove from the mould. Metal and glassware can simply be put in the dishwasher as well.

Making the Candle

A Guide to Preventing Common Candle Making Problems The quest for a candle that burns well and that is easier to make is part of the art. Everyone has to experiment with different combinations of method and material because everyone uses differently formulated supplies. These materials react in different ways to produce varying results. Therefore there is no set formula or recipe for the craft except where you can ensure the consistency of your materials and method. Even the temperature of the room you are working in has its effects.  From a hobbyist point of view, the unknown can be one of the most appealing things about candle making. The puzzle is not unsolvable, it just requires you to experiment to achieve the desired results (don't forget to record your experiments - you may want to achieve the same results again sometime).  Throughout the process, even when we make big 'mistakes' eventually someone who visits fancies the same candle that we might consider a failure.


The Wax Shrinks as it Cools

Paraffin wax will shrink and you will see wells form down your wicks as the candle cools. Often the best thing to do is simply keep some of the same batch of wax melted to refill the wells , sometimes several times over several hours. Be careful not to overfill if you want smooth candles. If wax gets between the hardened candle and its mould it will make a smooth surface imperfect.

There is a type of paraffin called 'one-pour' and it is formulated so that it doesn't shrink when it cools. The drawback is that some people find that it doesn't make candles that burn very well.... the flame is weak, the candle burns a hole down the middle, the candle smokes, etc. Dussek Campbell 5766 wax can be used as a 'one pour' . It is soft and mushy to work. It won't come out of moulds so use it for candles that stay in the container. Pour it at around 150 degrees, into 150 degree containers (heated in an oven on a tray) Let the candles cool in a box with a lid slowly.

You can get better candles that don't shrink as much by adding some beeswax, and melt with the paraffin. Try a 1:4 ratio beeswax to paraffin. With this also experiment with increasing the size of wick you use to get a candle that melts all the way to the sides - not leaving an unmelted perimeter as it burns down the wick length.
Beeswax often requires a larger wick than a straight paraffin(no additives) candle.

You can also make paraffin candles that don't shrink as much by adding solidified vegetable oil like Crisco but this sometimes causes some side effects like the one-pour paraffin.

Shrinkage will also be reduced by using a wax polymer additive such as Pourette's clear crystals or lustre crystals. You melt these separately from the paraffin (they take high temps to melt) then mix them in with the melted paraffin and pour your candles. They will increase the hardness of your candles so they may not be suitable for container candles. A candle that is very hard will burn a hole straight down the wick leaving the sides of the candle unmelted. Polymers can change the opacity of your wax, so check with the supplier to see if it will cause wax to become creamy looking or not.


Candles Are Difficult to Get Out of the Moulds

Spray the insides of your empty moulds with silicone spray. Some readers report a light coating of vegetable oil works well as a substitute. Beeswax in particular is sticky and difficult to get out of moulds at times. For any candle, regardless of the wax type, a stay in the refrigerator usually shrinks them slightly so they pop right out of the moulds. Watch how long you leave them in the fridge, though. If they are in metal moulds, leave them in the cold just until the mould feels cold. Longer and you may get thermal shock cracks... little spidery web type lines and cracks throughout your candle. There is also a product called releasant which you melt into your wax before you pour, and doesn't effect the colour or burning of your candle, but makes them release from the mould easily. Heat also works to get a candle out of a mould. Run hot water over the mould, or put the mould in a low oven for a couple of minutes. The disadvantage with heat, is that when the outer surface of the candle melts, it not only releases the candle from the mould, it gives the candle surface imperfections, like drips.

Container Candles Don't Melt Around the Edges 

From a Reader.....

Hi Xuguan,

I have been doing candles 6 months or so and have been doing very well in several shops. I was using a 136 Melt Point wax with 10% petro and 1/2 % vybar. However I am getting tired of paying to have petro shipped and cannot get it locally so decided to go back to the experimenting table. I though the lower the Melt Point, the softer the wax which I am assuming is because of the oil content. However I did not realize that the lower the Melt Point, the longer the burn! Sounds stupid I'm sure. So are you saying that a wax of 126 MP will burn longer than a wax with a mp of 131? If this is true then I am totally dumbfounded. You see my thinking was that the harder the wax the longer the burn (because of the length of time it would take to melt) yet I knew it had to be soft enough to burn across the container - therefore the petro. I also knew that the softer the wax the more fragrant because the scent was able to escape better. Because I wanted a long burning candle, I have been trying to stay in the lower 130's yet have the large melt pool. Please let me know if I have this correct now.
Thanks,
J.

The reply....

You've got it! The lower 130's should be fine for free standing candles. The key with the melt point of wax is what kind of candle you are using it for. Low melt point wax will make a longer burning candle if you use it for a container candle. If you use 125 melt point in a free-standing or taper candle, it will just melt into a blob in no time. All this is connected to the size and type of wick used too. If you have these three things in balance you get candles that burn well and look good : Type of candle, Wick size and Melt Point of the wax. You are correct about the melt pool needing to be wide for container candles. Since wax melts first, then evaporates (burns or whatever the correct chemical term is) container candles need to have a good sized melt pool (hence, use the low melt point wax) to burn fully and properly. If there isn't enough of a melt pool, the candle just burns down the wick in no time, leaving the sides of the container still covered in wax.

Pitting and Bubbles

Tiny bubbles and pits forming on your candles are caused by several things. Try pouring the wax at a hotter temperature, making sure the moulds are warm when you pour, and/or cooling your candles away from drafts. Sometimes bubbles form when the wax is poured too cool, and it sets up before the bubbles have a chance to rise and dissipate. A water bath after a hot pour generally results in very smooth, shiny surfaces. Remove the mould from the water bath after the first refill of the sink hole, and finish cooling at room temperature. Also, pits and bubbles may form when there is water in your wax or in your scent liquid. You may also have too much scent or the kind of scent that isn't made to blend with wax. Many pitting and bubble problems can be solved by adding 1% vybar to your paraffin. This will make your colours a bit creamy or light, so you may need to add more colour. Vybar does not affect the speed at which your candles burn.

Mottling and Star Burst Patterns

These are caused by using fragrances that are not made to mix with paraffin, or using too much of the fragrance. The carrier of the fragrance must mix with wax.  Alcohol, water and many oils do not mix with wax. Check with your scent supplier to be sure that it will mix with wax. When using the correct type of fragrance, also add 1% vybar mixed with your paraffin to eliminate the mottling effect.. It allows the paraffin to hold more of your scent.
You can make mottled candles on purpose by adding 3 tablespoons of mineral oil to 1 lb of melted paraffin.

Wet Spots/Adhesion Problems in Container Candles

Q:
Do you have any suggestions about keeping the wax from pulling away from the sides of glass jars and creating very unattractive spots/pits, etc.? I want to get a very smooth looking surface. Thanks for any help you might be able to offer.

A:
Try heating your jar just before you pour the wax into it. Get it hot, but not too hot to hold. Also, use vybar .... 1/4 tsp. per 1 lb of wax. Melt along with the paraffin. Pour the wax when its about 160 degrees fahrenheit.
Cool the jars slowly, out of any drafts. If the room is cold, put the jars in a cardboard box to cool.
This should help the wax adhere to the jars better, and get rid of those air bubbles/or 'wet spots' as they are also called.

WEAK FLAME/DROWNING WICK

This problem is usually caused by using a wick that is too small, or by using wax that is too hard (too high melt point) for the type of candle you are making. The first step to determine what the problem is and how to correct it, is to try using a larger wick size. If that doesn't work, use lower melt point wax without hardening additives such as stearine, or any of the polymers. Pure beeswax container candles often have this problem because beeswax has a naturally high melt point (146 F) . Try adding low melt point paraffin at a ratio of 2:1 paraffin to beeswax.

Making A Strongly Scented Candle

Sometimes people have trouble with the scent 'throw' of their candles when they use too much vybar as a wax additive. It binds up the scent oil molecules Also, if you are buying a paraffin blend, it may already have vybar added to it. Blends are mostly called 'one pour' wax.

Add your scent to the melted paraffin just before pouring, so it won't evaporate with a lot of cooking.

For container candles:

Use 125-130 degree fahrenheit melt point paraffin (low melt point)
1/4 tsp. vybar 260 per 1 1b of wax, melted with the paraffin
a fat enough wick for your container
and your scent (added just before pouring the melted wax)

The vybar allows you to use more liquid scent than you are using presently. It binds up the molecules of scent oil so they don't 'bleed' out of your finished candles in oily droplets or residue at the bottom of the candle.
Be aware that too much vybar will cause problems, it binds up the scent oil molecules: more isn't better in this case.

For free-standing candles , use the same formula except use 138 degree melt point wax.

The maximum amount of scent you can use depends on the scent formula. Some mfg make their scents stronger than others. Try adding more and more scent until you get a candle that comes out wrong: The problem you will see is mottling, oily residue on the surfaces of the candles, and sometimes sputtering wicks. This will tell you how much of that manufacturers scent the paraffin will hold. If its still not very fragrant, try another mfg scent.

Also, don't use too much vybar... it helps the paraffin to hold more oil, and colour but it also locks up scent if used liberally. 1/4 tsp. per 1 lb of wax should be enough for smooth good burning candles.

burning the candles

  • Keep your wicks trimmed or they will tend to smoke
  • Burn candles away from drafts. A draft will cause your candle to burn unevenly, drip and smoke.
  • Keep candles out of strong light. It will make the colour fade.
  • Refrigerate your candles for an hour before burning. They will last longer. Wrap them in foil or plastic when they are in the fridge or the wick will absorb moisture and the candle will not burn properly.
  • Store candles in zip lock bags to conserve their scent and keep dust off.

making the candles, Pouring the wax
and removing candles from moulds:

Break up your wax block by putting it in a plastic bag, and whacking it with a hammer. You can also just prise chunks off the main block with an old knife. Melt your wax over a medium burner in the saucepan and pitcher "double boiler" set up described above. Or, try the deep fryer to melt your wax as a correspondent suggests: " I find that using a fry daddy with adjustable heat to melt my wax works much better than the old double broiler. You just have to keep the heat very low until the wax starts to melt or the teflon coating bakes off. Once the wax goes into meltdown you just set the heat and your on your way. I then dip the wax with a plastic cup or punch ladle. I find this method much easier to control the temp of the wax, and once the power is off you just let the wax cool and it pops out in a block that fits back into the unit at a later date." For pouring wax into moulds the temperature of the melted wax should be between 85 and 95 degrees C (180 and 200 F) for blemish free candles. If you like interesting mottled patterns in your candles like I do, I don't bother taking the wax temperature. I just wait until it is fully melted and clear. If you want, you can use 3 parts paraffin wax and one part block beeswax. This will not be clear when it is melted. This mixture is harder to get out of a mould because of the sticky properties of the beeswax. Use silicone spray in your mould to get easier releasing candles. You can also put the mould in the refrigerator after its mostly cooled, for half-hour to help with the releasing. The blend of beeswax/paraffin produces lovely honey coloured candles with a lovely beeswax aroma. Other benefits of a beeswax/paraffin mixture are smoother candles without cracks or web like patterns caused by thermal shock in the cooling process. Beeswax doesn't shrink nearly as much as paraffin, so you will notice smaller or no wells forming down the middle of your candle as it cools - this means less or no refilling as it cools.

Prepare your moulds and containers while the wax is melting. You can spray inside each plastic or metal mould with silicone spray available at candle making supply stores. I recommend doing so, the candles always release from the mould easily this way. You can also use vegetable oil to lightly coat the inside of your moulds. If your mould has a hole in the bottom, thread the wick through here and seal it on the outside with rubber putty. Stretch the wick to the open end of the mould and suspend it here wrapped around a rod or pencil or something similar.

If you are making candles that stay in the container, or if your mould cannot be perforated with a wick hole, you can wick them two different ways that I can think of. When using flat braid wicking, make sure the braid grain or nap is going from top to bottom on your candle for even burning. (v up) An upside down wick will develop a carbonized ball on it as it burns and that will smoke and cause the candle to burn unevenly, and faster without utilizing the wax of your candle efficiently.

Here's a tip from Staci for holding your wick straight and taut. Take a tounge depressor and slice it length wise about 1/2 way down and just slide the wick into it and rest it on top of the container.You just pull the wick nice and tight!

 

1. For a tall or medium container, dip the desired length of wick in melted wax for a moment. Remove and hold it taut while it dries and hardens for a minute. Now you have a nice stiff straight piece of wick. Fix a wick base or tab (those little round metal flat things with a hole in the middle) or just a flat piece of aluminium foil, to one end of your wick. Glue this to the bottom of your container with hot glue and let dry. Wrap the other end of the wick around a pencil or rod and suspend over the rim of the container. Fill your container with wax.

2. For a short container, just pour your wax in and let it harden. Later take a heated metal skewer or use a power drill and poke it through the centre of the candle until you have a hole for your wick. Insert your wick and you're done. You can pour a little melted wax on top so it seeps down the hole and fixes the wick better if you need to. This method is useful if you're using Jell-O moulds or cake moulds, where the bottom is the top of the candle, and you don't want a wick tab on the top of your candle and you don't want to put a hole in your mould for a wick.

Pouring the wax.

When your moulds and containers are ready, and your wax is melted, add the colour chips to your melting pitcher and melt fully into the wax. Then, at the last add your scent. The scent is added at the last so it doesn't denature or dissipate through too much heating for too long. Now you can pour your candles. If you're aiming for a very smooth surfaced candle, it helps to have the mould warmed and tilt the mould so the wax doesn't fill the mould so turbulently, and cause tiny air bubbles to form on the sides and surface of your candles. Save some wax to refill the candles as they cool. I keep wax in a melted state for hours because as the candles cool the wax in the moulds and containers contract and form a deep well right down the middle of your candle. Refilling this well may be necessary several times. If you have beeswax mixed in with your paraffin, the shrink well will not be as big, or need refilling as much.  Be careful not to let your refill wax run over the top of the original candle level. The refill wax will run over and seep down inside between the candle and the mould and will mar your surface if you're going for perfect smoothness. It also makes it difficult to get a candle out of the mould.

Moulded candles can be made to look very even and shiny by cooling them in a cold water bath. About 1 minute after you pour, take the entire mould and set it in a container of cold water. Be careful not to get any water in your wax. It will ruin a candle. You will likely need to weight your mould so it doesn't float or tip in the water bath. Let the mould sit in its water bath after its second refill for about 2 hours. The final cooling process takes place at room temperature. It will take about 8 hours depending on the size of the mould for the candle to cool completely and be ready to remove from the mould. You can speed this final cooling process by putting candles in the refrigerator. Sometimes they will develop lines and tiny 'thermal shock' cracks which can be quite attractive. Remove the mould from the refrigerator after it feels cold to the touch. Any more cooling will result in many lines and tiny cracks, which means your candle surfaces will flake off later. If you desire this effect, you can put the cooling mould in the freezer for a half hour!

Remove the candles from the moulds.

If your finished candle has seams in it, you can gently remove them with a knife. Flatten the base of a wobbly candle by rubbing it gently around inside a warm fry pan until it melts flat. Polish finished candles with nylon stockings to remove fingerprints and small scratches. To get a hard shiny protective surface on a candle apply liquid candle sheen with a soft cloth. It is available at candle making supply stores and it works great! A spray version is also available. Others have used no-wax acrylic floor polish with good results. Floor wax has an odor, but readers report that the smell goes away when the wax hardens.

Candle Making Projects

¡¡

RUBBER STAMPED CANDLES

This decoration involves rubber stamping on a piece of tissue paper, embossing (optional) and then using a heat gun to attach the decorated tissue to a candle.

Place the piece of tissue paper with the stamped image wherever desired on the candle and hold it in place with just the tiniest dot of glue. Aim a heat gun at the image. The wax will melt when the heat hits it, and it will be forced through the paper or over it, depending on the weight of the paper being used. The stamped image will then be permanently attached to the candle.

This technique can be used on candles of any size, but it is especially effective on the large candles that burn down in the middle and allow the light of the flame to shine through the wax and the stamped tissue.

Try this technique too: Rubber stamp a design on a white paper napkin. If you use party napkins that can be peeled apart, stamp the image on the top layer of the paper then peel the other layers off. The remaining piece is so thin it will adhere in a moment.

You can decorate candles in this manner even if you do not own a rubber stamp. Simply cut or tear out a pattern or picture from a paper napkin and apply it in the same manner. The background of the napkin must be either white or a light color that matches the candle.

Cracks, Star bursts and Internal Mottling

1.  Freeze the candle mould before you pour the wax. The cold will 'shock' the hot paraffin into all sorts of unique and unpredictable patterns as it cools. There are lots of ways to do this, how it ends up looking depends on your
wax formula. Be careful, make sure your mould is stabilized when you pour. Wax and water mixed can really pop, be careful! Water droplets will form on the mould while it is freezing, due to condensation. The amount of water shouldn't be a problem when burning the candle, if you don't leave the mould in the freezer for more than an hour.

Here are some ways to do it:

A . If the mould is small, just put it in the freezer and pour the wax right away after removal from the freezer.
B . Pack the mould in ice.
C . Pack the mould in dry ice.
Try pouring a layer, let it jell over a little, then pour another layer, for some interesting effects.

2.  Pour a moulded candle as usual. Put it in the fridge to cool fully. When you take it out of the fridge, run hot water over the outside of the mould to melt the surface layer of wax. Put it back in the fridge for an hour. When it comes out of the mould the surface will be crackled and textured.

Marbleized Candles

Get some taper candles... whatever colour you want. Dip the exposed wick in melted paraffin so it won't get wet in the process to follow:
Melt some paraffin in a container in a pan of water on the stove or hot plate. Colour it with a contrasting or complimenting colour to the original taper colour. Heat water to almost boiling in a tall container. Pour to float the coloured paraffin on the surface of the hot water in the tall container. Swirl the coloured          paraffin around gently. Dip your taper candle in the water/coloured paraffin vat, swirling it around as you pull it out. It will develop a mottled, swirl pattern of colour on its surface. Let it harden and cool. Repeat if you desire.

Votive Formula

90% paraffin melt point 131
 6% stearic acid
 2% micro 180 wax
 2% lustre crystals

Use a metal core wick and wick tabs, Pour the wax when it gets to 190 degrees unless the mould mfg instructions say differently.

Re-Using Old Candles

You can remelt candles and repour them into moulds or new containers.
Make the same kind of candle that the old wax was.... that is, if you have old container candles, use the wax for new container candles. If you have old free standing candles (moulded candles) use the old wax for new moulded candles. This way you will probably have the correct melt point wax for the type of candle you are making.
Melt down the candles, remove debris or pieces of old wick. You can strain wax through a nylon stocking stretched over a metal container.

Rolled Paraffin Pillars

You can make your own paraffin sheets.   Just melt some paraffin, colour it and scent it if you want, and pour it into a wax paper lined cookie sheet with sides. Let is harden a little, until it is still pliable but won't burn you. Then gently separating the paper from the wax, roll it up into a candle. Try embedding herbs or spices in the pliable wax before you roll it up.

Ice Candles

Lacy, intricate ice candles are full of holes where the ice melted as you pour the hot
wax into the mould.

  • Use a mould (paper milk cartons work well for these)
  • Wick the candle before pouring, but use a wick that you have entirely coated in melted wax, otherwise it will get wet and never dry out, you will have a hard time burning the candle. Alternatively, you can use a taper candle
    secured in the centre of your milk carton (sticking through the bottom and sealed with putty from the outside). This will form a nice core for a hole-y candle, and will burn well. (again dip the wick end that is exposed
    in wax to keep it from getting wet).
  • You can try making the candle with different sized ice cubes. Small ones
    leave small holes, etc.

  • Fill the mould with ice cubes, then pour the melted paraffin over these. Let it harden then pour out the water.
  • Tear away your mould and enjoy your new candle.

    SQUASH CANDLES

    Cut the top off an acorn squash. Remove the seeds and innards. Use this hollow squash for a candle mould.
    You can thread a wick through the bottom of the squash using a long upholstery needle or other large needle. Seal the bottom with a bit of putty. Stand the squash in a large glass to keep it level. Pour your melted paraffin, remembering to keep some in reserve to fill the shrink well as the candle cools. You may have to do this several times, poking a small hole along the wick to relieve any trapped air. When your candle is fully hardened, cut away or peel away the squash shell and you are left with a wonderfully shaped unique candle. The flesh of the squash will leave a rustic patina on your candle as well.   Flatten the base of your candle by rubbing it in an old fry pan on low heat.

    Water Balloon Candles

    Fill a balloon with water to the desired size. Dip the balloon in wax, make sure it is somewhat cool. Continue dipping the balloon until a hard shell has formed around it. Carefully pop the balloon at the top, and empty out the water. Pull the balloon out of the wax shell. Pour a small amount of wax (a different colour from the first) into the shell. Roll it around in the shell, making sure all areas are covered, until the wax is dry. Continue doing this with different colours until the shell is almost filled. Insert the wick during the last fill. Once the candle is cool, use a potato peeler or something similar to shave the top of the candle, making it smooth and flat.
    These candles turn out to look something like a geode. They are a little time consuming, but the end result is fantastic!!

    ¡¡

    Fruit Candles

    Fruit candles are easy. Fill a jar with water and your favourite colourful fruit slices. Put a floater candle on top, and enjoy! For a sparkling clear candle, change the water daily. The fruit will last a couple of days depending on the weather.


    Ways to Attach Fruit, Herbs, Flowers Leaves, and Spices

    Stick pressed flowers or leaves to the outside of a finished candle by dipping the flower in uncoloured melted wax and pressing it gently to the surface of the candle. Then take the candle by the wick and dip the whole thing into the melted wax once or twice to form a seal over the flowers, but still let them show through the glow of the burning candle. The most lightly coloured or non coloured wax works best with this decorating idea. The flowers can be seen better.

    Ground cinnamon or other aromatic spices added to the melted wax are nice. They tend to settle to the bottom of your candle a bit , but this looks nice. Glitter and confetti can be used also.

    You can add shells, for example, in different ways.

    1. Take a finished candle and dig out pieces of wax from the surface of it. Make the holes about the same size as your shell. Glue the shell into the prepared hole and take a blow torch or hair dryer and pass it over the area a few times to smooth the area by melting it a bit.

    2. Use a pillar mould with a mould sleeve insert. A mould sleeve insert is the same shape as the regular mould, but small in diameter. Place the insert inside the mould. Fill the space between the insert and the regular mould with you shells and pour your wax. The wax will fill up the entire thing, inside and outside the walls of the insert. Tap the mould to get the air bubbles out from between the shells.

    3. Use a pillar mould and instead of a sleeve insert, use a pre made pillar candle the same shape as your mould. Place it in the mould, and fill the space with shells, pour a higher melt point wax over the shells (higher mp than that of the pre made candle if possible).

    For method 2 and 3 also cool the mould in a cool water bath after pouring the candle

    Stick whole cinnamon sticks vertically around the outside surface of your candle by painting one side of the stick with melted wax. You can also line your mould with cinnamon sticks and a good deal of melted wax before you pour the mould. Let it harden and then fill the rest of your mould with wax. This gives a very rustic look.
    Try the same techniques using miniature candy canes for Christmas candles. The candle will have a nice subtle sweet mint aroma.

    Try attaching dried blood orange slices, or whole spices to the outside of a finished candle using melted wax and a paintbrush, or clear drying craft glue such as Elmer's. To dry the fruit slices, put them in a 150 (65C) degree oven for several hours on a piece of parchment. You can also dip the dried fruit slices right into melted clear paraffin for a few seconds and then press them onto your candles. Don't burn your fingers, use tweezers to hold the fruit and a chop stick or tongue depressor to press the fruit onto your candle.

    Variations on tapers

    Making Bubbly candles on purpose. Dipping a finished candle in melted paraffin that isn't at its hottest will result in a thin layer of bubbles over your candle surface which is very attractive in a rustic way. I made some tapers, using 145 (62 C)degree melt point wax. For the last two or three dips, I let the melted wax cool off to about 120 (50C) degrees.

    Floral, Herbal, grubby and Hurricane Candles:

    Make a paraffin pillar candle, wait till it's totally dry and set it inside a mould that's a little bigger around. Then sprinkle potpourri or dried herbs and flowers around the candle and fill around the sides with more wax. That way the flower pieces won't be in the middle part that burns. The outside wax should be a harder (higher melt point) wax than the inside candle so the outer floral shell doesn't melt.

    I also made a regular moulded candle, let it cool completely and fixed some dried pressed flowers to the candle using melted wax and a paintbrush. To seal the flowers, I then dipped the whole candle in clear melted paraffin at a temperature of about 120 degrees (it was 138 melt point wax). I dipped it twice, and the flowers show through nicely, and there are bubbles in this outer layer of wax.

    You can spray candles with non flammable craft spray paints. An under layer of deep blue, red or green looks nice with a dusting of gold or bronze paint over it.

    To make rustic looking candles with a sandy looking surface, pour the wax cold... just as it begins to thicken.

    Cake Candles, Whipped Wax 

    You make a normal pillar candle, let it cool and harden and remove it from the mould. Then apply the outer coating of wax in whatever style or effect you want:

     

    Whipped,
    Stippled
    Herb or flower, potpourri, sand or whatever encrusted

    To do this, just melt some more paraffin. You can colour it if you want. Use a higher melt point type of wax than used in the original candle if possible.
    Take it off the heat and use a hand mixer or wire whisk to whip up the wax for a minute or so. Then paint the whipped wax onto the outer surface of your candle with a stiff paintbrush or a tongue depressor or other stick type implement. It may help if you slightly melt the outer surface of the core candle a bit with a hairdryer or rub it around in an old fry pan. The new wax layer will adhere better to a layer of slightly warm/melted wax.
    I haven't tried this, but some say a pinch of cream of tartar in the whipped wax helps it to adhere better.

    To make variations, add other materials to the whipped wax before you apply it to the candle: Sand , herbs, potpourri.

    Or to get a stippling effect, apply the wax to the candle, then go over it in a gentle jabbing manner with a very stiff stencilling type brush at a 45 degree angle to the side of the candle.

    Or, don't whip the wax, just paint it on thickly (let it cool a bit before you start) Then roll then entire candle in sand or dried herbs or potpourri and it will stick. Let this cool fully,

    You can then over dip the entire candle to seal it and give it a shiny surface if you wish.

    The higher melt point of the outer layer of wax will let it stay fairly intact while the core candle burns down naturally. Then your herbs or flowers won't get into the melt pool of the core candle and catch on fire.

    Fire Starters 

    These paper coated wax parcels will help start wood fires. They are made from paraffin, poured into egg cartons. You can mix sawdust shavings with the wax to improve its fire lighting properties.

 

setup your own candle factory Montaje de una fabrica de velas


Montaje de las maquinas

Problemas

 

make the regular candle Maquinas de Velas

Velas Cilindricas
Velas Conicas
Velas Torneadas
Velitas de noche
Velas votiva
Velones 7 dias 7 noches
Velones
Velas de Cumpleaños
Velas Flotantes
Pantalla
Otras Velas

Melt the solid wax Maquina de derretir parafina

Estas son maquinas indispensables para hacer velas. .
Maquina de derretir parafina

Caja de fusión instantánea

 

Produce your candle by more moden machine Maquinas Automaticas

Velitas de noche,
Velas votiva, Velones,
Velones 7 dias 7 noches

Maquinas prensadoras automaticas

Vela Tealight Reeling y máquina de presión

Línea de llenado

 

Chalk & Crayon Making Machine Maquina de Tizas y Crayolas

Tiza máquina, Crayone máquina.
Fabricacion de Tizas

Fabricacion de Crayolas


Material and additives for the candle and chalk making
Materias Primas



Parafina
Pabilos
Tacitas de aluminio y porta pabilo
Acido Estearico
Aceite de Citronella
Colores y Pigmentos
Escencias

 

Maquinas Accesorias


Maquina de fabricar tacitas de aluminio

Sistema de agua de refrigeración

Mecha de la máquina de inmersión

Máquina de corte mecha

Embalaje de velas

Máquina de embalaje de velas (casa)

 Embalaje de vela de tealight

Fabricación de parafina en polvo

Maquina de pulverizadora de parafina

Polvo de parafina de fresado

Super polvo de casa

 

 

 

 

 

LOGIN
sólo los miembros

Línea de producción completa

Línea completa de velas Tealight presionar

Completar la línea de llenado Tealight

Línea de producción automática de velas de cumpleaños

Fabricacion Artesanal


Como fabricar velas

velas vivos

hacer vela con moho

 

 

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